Blasting is defined as an acceleration of particles by air or mechanical means to a surface or work-piece to achieve a variety of physical effects (Conference Paper, 2020). The dry ice pellets are propelled at a supersonic speed by compressed air. Upon impact, the dry ice creates a micro-thermal shock (caused by the extreme cold temperature of -79ºC) which breaks the bond between the coating and the substrate. The high-pressure air streams therefore remove the dirt from the surface, while the dry ice pellets simply vaporize (Intellblast, 2021). Through this technical process, dry ice blasting can safely remove coatings and contaminants from surfaces without the secondary waste treatment and disposal often required with pre-treatment chemicals and other cleaning methods. As a result, it offers benefits such as cost reductions, extension of equipment’s service life, minimised substrate damage and improved environmental safety compared to other cleaning methods (BNP Media, 2007). Even at high impact velocities, the kinetic effect of solid CO2 pellets is minimal when compared to other media (grit, sand, etc). This is due to the relative softness of solid CO2, which is not as dense and hard as other projectile media. Additionally, the pellet changes phase from a solid to a gas almost instantaneously and transfers very little impact energy onto the coating, making this blasting process non-abrasive (source: ColdJet)
Sustainable manufacturing process can be defined as the creation of manufacturing products that use processes to minimize the negative environmental impact, conserve energy and natural resources as well as it is a promising technology help to eliminate waste, cost and pollution. The non-conventional blasting materials that have less toxic include ice cubes, dry ice, plastic bend media, sponge, sodium bicarbonate, water, biodegradable materials. Dry ice blasting and its benefits will present as sustainable and non-conventional blasting technology comparing with the sandblasting method. Sandblasting was done based on the mechanical impact of blasting media, however, dry ice cleaning is done based on thermal shock without destroying the properties of the substrate (Conference Paper, 2020).
Besides the benefits of cleaning with a natural substance, Dry Ice blasting method offers superb versatility – as such, it is perfectly suitable for fire restoration and mould remediation; electrical components and equipment that cannot be exposed to water; processing and packaging equipment in “dry” areas; graffiti removal; welding cells; oven “baked-on” residues; and so on.